Selasa, 13 Mei 2008

Kyai Haji Ahmad Dahlan (1868-1923)

Islamic revivalist who established Muhammadiyah in 1912.


Ahmad Dahlan was born in the Muslim quarter of Yogyakarta behind the Yogyakarta Sultan's Great Mosque. His father was the Imam of the mosque, and Dahlan learned that language from his father. It is Muslim belief that one can only know the holy Koran in its original language, but very few Indonesians at this time knew Arabic, and those who could were considered people of great knowledge. Dahlan was sent to an Islamic boarding school or pesantren.[1] As one of his five obligations as a Muslim, he went on a pilgramage to Mecca where he studied with Ahmad Khatib, the renowned religious teacher. Dahlan associated with fellow Indonesian pilgrams from Sulawesi, West Java, Minangkabau, Aceh and other areas of strong belief, which helped them both conceive of a common interest against the Dutch colonial masters of Indonesia and the need to purify and renew Islam in Indonesia.[2]


After returning to Java around 1888, he married the daughter of the head (imam) of the Great Mosque in Yogyakarta. As one of the growing group who regarded themselves as modernists, he was concerned at the many Javanese practices not justified by Islamic scripture and argued for the creation of a renewed purer Islam more in step with the modern world.[2] The efforts of Western Christian missionaries also concerned him. He joined Budi Utomo in 1909, hoping to preach reform to its members, but his supporters urged him to create his own organization.

He created Muhammadiyah in 1912 as an educational organisation as a means of realising his reformist ideals. It was quickly joined by traders and craftsment. In 1917 added a women's section named Aisyiyah, which played a significant role in modernising the life of Indonesian women. Spreading to the Outer Islands, Muhammadiyah established a strong base in Sulawesi only a decade later after it was founded. It was one of a number of indigenous Indonesian organisations founded in the first three decades of the twentienth century—a time known as the Indonesian National Revival—that were key in establishing a sense of Indonesian nationalism, and ultimately independence. Today, with 20 million members, Muhammadiyah is the second largest Muslim organisation in Indonesia after Nahdlatul Ulama.[2]

Muhammadiyah Logo

Muhammadiyah Logo, featuring Muhammad calligraphy

Muhammadiyah (full name: Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah) is an Islamic organization in Indonesia. Muhammadiyah, literally means "followers of Muhammad" (from Arabic). The organization was founded in 1912 by Ahmad Dahlan in the city of Yogyakarta as a reformist socioreligious movement, advocating ijtihad - individual interpretation of Qur'an and sunnah, as opposed to taqlid - the acceptance of the traditional interpretations propounded by the ulama.[1].

At the moment, Muhammadiyah is the second largest Islamic organization in Indonesia with 29 million members[2]. Although Muhammadiyah leaders and members are often actively involved in shaping the politics in Indonesia, Muhammadiyah is not a political party. It has devoted itself to social and educational activities.


Today, with 29 million members Muhammadiyah is the second largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, after Nahdatul Ulama.

On November 18, 1912, Ahmad Dahlan—an educated Muslim scholar from Mecca—established Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta. The motivation for its foundation was widespread synchretism in Indonesian, and particularly Javanese, Muslim society. Ahmad Dahlan, much influenced by Egyptian reformist Muhammad 'Abduh, considered such practices proof of shirk or idolatry. Since its beginning, Muhammadiyah has thus been very concerned with maintaining tawhid, and refining monotheism in society.

From 1913 to 1918, Muhammadiyah established five Islamic Schools. In 1919 an Islamic high school, Hooge School Muhammadiyah was established. [3] Muhammadiyah has generally avoided politics. Unlike its even more conservative counterpart, Nahdatul Ulama, it never formed a political party. Since its establishment, it has devoted itself to educational and social activities.

However, during the Indonesian reformation, some parts of Muhammadiyah urged the leadership to form a party. Therefore, they - including Muhammadiyah chairman, Amien Rais, founded the National Mandate Party. Although gaining large support from Muhammadiyah members, this party has no official relationship with Muhammadiyah. The leader of Muhammadiyah says the members of his organisation are free to align themselves with political parties of their choosing provided such parties have shared values with Muhammadiyah. [4]


The central doctrine of Muhammadiyah is Sunni Islam. However, the main focus of the Muhammadiyah movement is to heighten people's sense of moral responsibility, purifying their faith to true Islam. It emphasizes the authority of the Qur'an and the Hadiths as supreme Islamic law that serves as the legitimate basis of the interpretation of religious belief and practices, in contrast to traditional practices where shariah law invested in religious school by ulema.

Muhammadiyah strongly opposes syncretism, where Islam in Indonesia has coalesced with animism (spirit worship) and with Hindu-Buddhist values that were spread among the villagers, including the upper classes, from the pre-Islamic period. Furthermore, Muhammadiyah opposes the tradition of Sufi cult that allows Sufi leader (shaykh) as the formal authority of Muslims.

As of 2006, it is said to have "veered sharply toward a more conservative brand of Islam" under the "leadership of Din Syamsuddin" the head of Indonesia's Council of Ulama. [5]


Muhammadiyah is noted as a Muslim reformists organization. Its main activity is religion and education. It has built Islamic schools in modern forms, aside from traditional pesantren. Some of its schools are also open to non-Muslims [6]. Currently there are around 5,754 schools owned by Muhammadiyah. [7]

Muhammadiyah also manages several Islamic universities, such as:

It has also functioned as a charitable organization. Today it owns several hundred medical clinics and hospitals in Indonesia. Recently it has been active in campaigning about the danger of bird flu in Indonesia. [8]


The national headquarters was originally in Yogyakarta. However, by 1970 the committees dealing with education, economics, health and social welfare had been relocated to the national capital, Jakarta.

Muhammadiyah is supported by several autonomous organizations: [9]

  • Aisyiyah ( Women )
  • Pemuda Muhammadiyah ( Youth )
  • Nasyiatul Aisyiyah ( Young Women )
  • Ikatan Remaja Muhammadiyah ( a teenagers group) [5]
  • Jaringan Intelektual Muda Muhammadiyah

The central committee structure consists of five advisors, a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary general and some deputies, a treasurer and some deputies, as well as several deputies of chairman. [10]

List of Leaders

  • KH Ahmad Dahlan 1912-1922
  • KH Ibrahim 1923-1934
  • KH Hisyam 1935 - 1936
  • KH Mas Mansur 1937 - 1941
  • Ki Bagus Hadikusuma 1942 - 1953
  • Buya A.R Sutan Mansur 1956
  • H.M. Yunus Anis 1959
  • KH. Ahmad Badawi 1962 - 1965
  • KH. Faqih Usman 1968
  • KH. AR Fachruddin 1971 - 1985
  • KHA. Azhar Basyir, M.A. 1990 - 1995
  • Prof. Dr. H. M. Amien Rais 1995 - 1998
  • Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif 1998 - 2005
  • Prof. Dr. HM Din Syamsuddin 2005 - 2010


  1. Peacock, J.L. (1978). Purifying the Faith: The Muhammadijah Movement in Indonesian Islam. Cummings Press.
  2. Muhammadiyah. Div. of Religion and Philosophy, St. Martin College, UK. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.


  1. ^ Muhammadiyah. Div. of Religion and Philosophy, St. Martin College, UK. Retrieved on [[2008-08-28]].
  2. ^ Muhammadiyah. Div. of Religion and Philosophy, St. Martin College, UK. Retrieved on [[2008-08-28]].
  3. ^ Short History of Persyarikatan Muhammadiyah. Muhammadiyah. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  4. ^ Muhammadiyah Makes Overtures to Islamists. Indonesia Matters. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  5. ^ In Indonesia, Islam loves democracy
  6. ^ USINDO Roundtable With the Muhammadiyah and Aisyiyah Delegation. The US-Indonesian Society. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  7. ^ Muhammadiyah urged Governot to Set Model School. Tribun Timur. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  8. ^ Muhammadiyah to help campaign on danger of avian flu. Antara. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  9. ^ Autonomous Organizations. Muhammadiyah. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  10. ^ Central Organization. Muhammadiyah. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.


Sang Surya
(Muhammadiyah well known song)

Sang Surya tetap bersinar
Syahadat dua melingkar
Warna yang hijau berseri
Membuatku rela hati

Ya Allah Tuhan Rabbiku
Muhammad jungjunganku
Al-Islam agamaku
Muhammadiyah gerakanku

Di timur fajar cerah gemerlapan
Mengusir kabut hitam
Menggugah kaum muslimin
Tinggalkan peraduan

Lihatlah matahari telah tinggi
di ufuk timur sana
seruan Ilahi Rabbi
sami'na wa a'tha'na

Ya Allah Tuhan Rabbiku
Muhammad jungjunganku
Al-Islam agamaku
Muhammadiyah gerakanku

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